Where did the gold on Earth come from?

Answer by Robert Frost:

It takes a massive amount of energy to make elements.  The Earth does not have enough energy.  Jupiter does not have enough energy.  In fact, Jupiter would need to be 75 times larger to have enough energy for fusion to begin.

The lightest elements (hydrogen, helium, lithium) were formed in the big bang.

A young healthy star 'burns' hydrogen.  The hydrogen is fused into helium.  As the star ages it can become a red giant.  At this point the helium can 'burn' into carbon, carbon can 'burn' into neon, neon can 'burn" into oxygen, oxygen can 'burn' into silicon, and silicon can 'burn' into iron.

Iron is very stable.  It doesn't release energy, so the star's element factory ends with iron.

More elements can be produced in a supernova.  Supernova nucleosynthesis can make silicon, sulfur, chlorine, argon, sodium, potassium, calcium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, and nickel. and then neutron capture processes (R-process and S-process) can produce some of the elements heavier than nickel.

It was assumed that gold was also made in a supernova, but recent observations indicate that the heaviest atoms, including gold, are formed during the collision of two neutron stars.

Where did the gold on Earth come from?


What are some life changing short stories?

Answer by Saurabh Srivastava:

This is a story which I read long ago so the narrator is narrating the story.
“ I had just reached  the railway station and was waiting for my train to arrive as I had to travel to Jaipur in a family function of my friend. When I asked the Train Enquiry Department, they told me that the train will arrive at 9.00 pm, which meant I had to wait for an extra hour. So I tried to pass my time by having a look at the station and the things happening there. Since it was a small station, there were very few passengers. I saw a group of boys playing with the pebbles. The boys were all dressed up quite pathetically as their clothes were very dirty and torn.  But still they were quite happy with the pebbles and were enjoying  to the fullest. Suddenly I developed an urge to drink tea as it was a cold evening,but to my misfortune, I couldn't find any tea vendors on the very station. The only tea vendor was sitting outside the station and I couldn't take the risk of leaving leaving all my luggage on the station just to drink the tea. I called one of the boys from the guys and asked him to bring me a cup of tea by handing him a coin of 5 rupees. He agreed and went to bring me the tea.Time passed and after half an hour,I heard the announcement which  said that my train would be arriving in a couple of minutes. Now I was sure that the child ran away with the money and cursed myself for trusting a ROADSIDE Boy. I stood up to pick my luggage as the train arrived. I was just about  to enter the coach when I heard a voice which said 'Babuji, Apki chai' (translates to 'Sir, your tea')
Surprised with the voice, I looked back and asked him,Why  did he bring the tea so late ?
He told me, he lost the 5 rupees coin and so he had to clean the utensils of the tea vendor, to bring me a cup of tea!!

EDIT – I am seeing lots of people saying that this story touched their hearts, well let me tell you even I had tears while writing  this. .

What are some life changing short stories?

Have I have fallen in love with Python because she is beautiful?

Answer by Vaibhav Mallya:

There's nothing wrong with falling in love with a programming language for her looks. I mean, let's face it – Python does have a rockin' body of modules, and a damn good set of utilities and interpreters on various platforms. Her whitespace-sensitive syntax is easy on the eyes, and it's a beautiful sight to wake up to in the morning after a long night of debugging. The way she sways those releases on a consistent cycle – she knows how to treat you right, you know?

But let's face it – a lot of other languages see the attention she's getting, and they get jealous. Really jealous. They try and make her feel bad by pointing out the GIL, and they try and convince her that she's not "good enough" for parallel programming or enterprise-level applications. They say that her lack of static typing gives her programmers headaches, and that as an interpreted language, she's not fast enough for performance-critical applications.

She hears what those other, older languages like Java and C++ say, and she thinks she's not stable or mature enough. She hears what those shallow, beauty-obsessed languages like Ruby say, and she thinks she's not pretty enough. But she's trying really hard, you know? She hits the gym every day, trying to come up with new and better ways of JIT'ing and optimizing. She's experimenting with new platforms and compilation techniques all the time. She wants you to love her more, because she cares.

But then you hear about how bad she feels, and how hard she's trying, and you just look into her eyes, sighing. You take Python out for a walk – holding her hand – and tell her that she's the most beautiful language in the world, but that's not the only reason you love her.

You tell her she was raised right – Guido gave her core functionality and a deep philosophy she's never forgotten. You tell her you appreciate her consistent releases and her detailed and descriptive documentation. You tell her that she has a great set of friends who are supportive and understanding – friends like Google, Quora, and Facebook. And finally, with tears in your eyes, you tell her that with her broad community support, ease of development, and well-supported frameworks, you know she's a language you want to be with for a long, long time.

After saying all this, you look around and notice that the two of you are alone. Letting go of Python's hand, you start to get down on one knee. Her eyes get wide as you try and say the words – but she just puts her finger on your lips and whispers, "Yes".

The moon is bright. You know things are going to be okay now.

Have I have fallen in love with Python because she is beautiful?

Would becoming homeless be a good strategy to cut costs?

Answer by Kurt Varner:

I recently concluded a 4 month adventure of living from my car in Silicon Valley. Don't listen to the naysayers. It can be done, and it will save you a ton of money. I did this out of choice, also while bootstrapping my startup.

Here's what Inc. Magazine had to say about it: http://www.inc.com/magazine/2012…

My monthly costs were a grand total of $219. $100 for a 24/7 co-working membership, $39 for a 24/7 gym membership, and $80 at the grocery store. Here's how the logistics of it all worked…

Car: If you don't have a car, get one. It is key to making this lifestyle work. You don't need to worry about a homeless shelter, and you can store all your possessions in it (all I had was a duffle bag, my laptop, sleeping stuff, and food). It's the one consistent place you can depend on. You'll be able to buy a cheap one for less than a month's rent in the Bay Area. I had a 2004 Honda Civic.

Sleeping: Sleeping is obviously super important if you expect to be in good mental standing everyday. I made it work by folding down the rear seats and laying a 3" foam mattress pad from the truck to the rear of the interior. I'm 6 feet tall and I could almost stretch out entirely while laying down. It's not as comfortable as a bed, but surprisingly, it's not as bad as you'd think. I slept fully through the nights.

Showering: I bought a 24 Hour Fitness membership to take care of my hygienic needs. Every morning I'd wake up and drive to the gym to take a shower. Then, like every other normal person, I'd head off to work. I found that having 24/7 access was really nice in case I had to go to the bathroom in the middle of the night. I'd always park within a few miles (and many times as close as the parking lot). If you're looking for a less expensive option, there are some gyms that are as low as $15/mo.

Working and free time: I signed up for a Hacker Dojo co-working membership. This is primarily where I spent all my time. They provide fast internet, a microwave, coffee, water, couches, community, etc. For only $100/mo, it's a no brainer. **Do not abuse their space. Don't use it to sleep in or steal from. Just common sense.

Eating: I stored almost all my food in my car. The small amount of perishable food I did have, I used the Hacker Dojo refrigerators. These are communal, so I chose not to store much in them. However, I would use their microwave everyday to heat my meals. I wrote a short post about what I ate: http://blog.kurtvarner.com/post/…. Mainly, just get stuff that doesn't need to be refrigerated. However, it is definitely a challenge to eat healthy, as high sodium is going to be prevalent in nearly all canned foods. Just be cautious.

Parking: Technically, Palo Alto is the only Bay Area city where it's legal to live from a vehicle. That said, I parked more nights in Mountain View over the course of the 4 months. I was only slightly disturbed once when a police officer spotlighted my car. I sat up from my back seat, looked at him, and then he simply drove away.

When looking for locations to park, my focus was on being unnoticed. Anywhere with little foot traffic is best. Not sure where you're located, but here are a few places that worked well for me: https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?…. There are countless other places that will work well. I found these by taking an afternoon to just randomly drive around.

Tint your windows: If you want your privacy, tint your windows. This was one of the best decisions I made, as it really helped me to fly under the radar. I went with a 23% tint that cost about $120 professionally installed. It wasn't pitch black, but it was dark enough where you couldn't see in during the night, and made you and your possessions not obvious during the day.
Sun shade: Get a $5 sun shade to put in the windshield while you sleep.
Rear screen: Do the same with a mesh screen for the rear window.

Here are two videos of my set up. It may help the reality of the situation set in a bit.

Video of my set up:


Video of waking up in my car: I may regret posting this one, but here's to transparency 🙂


Overall, this lifestyle begins to feel fairly normal. Admittedly, it's nicer to be living in an apartment, but if you're in desperate need to cut costs, a car will be your best friend.

On a side note, there's another fantastic benefit that comes from living like this – embracing a minimalistic perspective on life. Before these 4 months, everyday I took for granted things like a warm bed, shower, home cooked meals, etc. It’s easy to lose sight of how privileged the majority of us are, but there are many, many people without these basic things. I realized that even the simple things in life could bring me more happiness than a world of possessions.

Since starting my journey, I've heard a lot of encouragement from the startup community, but also quite a bit of hatred. You have to take the negativity with a grain of salt. You know your situation better than anyone, so just trust yourself.

You are not alone. During my experience I saw many other people living from vehicles. It's strange that most people are oblivious to it. There are even several other entrepreneurs I know that are taking to the streets to cut costs here in the Valley.

I'd be more than happy to offer any other advice to you. There's so much more that could be said, but I'm sparing some details for the sake of time. Connect with me if you'd like to meet up or get on a call.

[Edit] You can read more about my story at http://blog.kurtvarner.com.

Would becoming homeless be a good strategy to cut costs?

Life after birth ? A thought experiment .

In  a mother’s womb were two babies. One asked the other: “Do you believe  in life after delivery?” The other replied, “Why, of course. There has  to be something after delivery. Maybe we are here to prepare ourselves  for what we will be later.”
“Nonsense” said the first. “There is no life after delivery. What kind of life would that be?”

The second said, “I don’t know, but there will be more light than  here. Maybe we will walk with our legs and eat from our mouths. Maybe  we will have other senses that we can’t understand now.”

The  first replied, “That is absurd. Walking is impossible. And eating with  our mouths? Ridiculous! The umbilical cord supplies nutrition and  everything we need. But the umbilical cord is so short. Life after  delivery is to be logically excluded.”

The second insisted,  “Well I think there is something and maybe it’s different than it is  here. Maybe we won’t need this physical cord anymore.”

The  first replied, “Nonsense. And moreover if there is life, then why has no  one has ever come back from there? Delivery is the end of life, and in  the after-delivery there is nothing but darkness and silence and  oblivion. It takes us nowhere.”

“Well, I don’t know,” said the second, “but certainly we will meet Mother and she will take care of us.”

The first replied “Mother? You actually believe in Mother? That’s laughable. If Mother exists then where is She now?”

The second said, “She is all around us. We are surrounded by her. We  are of Her. It is in Her that we live. Without Her this world would not  and could not exist.”

Said the first: “Well I don’t see Her, so it is only logical that She doesn’t exist.”

To which the second replied, “Sometimes, when you’re in silence and you  focus and you really listen, you can perceive Her presence, and you can  hear Her loving voice, calling down from above .

Davaun T Kurcz – Mobile uploads

down from above.”

If programming languages were countries, which country would each language represent?

Answer by John Purcell:

Disclaimer: all of this is only a joke 🙂

Java: USA — optimistic, powerful, likes to gloss over inconveniences.

C++: UK — strong and exacting, but not so good at actually finishing things and tends to get overtaken by Java.

Python: The Netherlands. "Hey no problem, let'sh do it guysh!"

Ruby: France. Powerful, stylish and convinced of its own correctness, but somewhat ignored by everyone else.

Assembly language: India. Massive, deep, vitally important but full of problems.

Cobol: Russia. Once very powerful and written with managers in mind; but has ended up losing out.

SQL and PL/SQL: Germany. A solid, reliable workhorse of a language.

Javascript: Italy. Massively influential and loved by everyone, but breaks down easily.

Scala: Hungary. Technically pure and correct, but suffers from an unworkable obsession with grammar that will limit its future success.

C: Norway. Tough and dynamic, but not very exciting.

PHP: Brazil. Full of beauty and flouts itself a lot, but secretly very conservative.

LISP: Iceland. Incredibly clever and well-organised, but icy and remote.

Perl: China. Able to do apparently almost anything, but rather inscrutable.

Swift: Japan. One minute it's nowhere, the next it's everywhere and your mobile phone relies on it.

C#: Switzerland. Beautiful and well thought-out, but expect to pay a lot if you want to get seriously involved.

R: Liechtenstein. Probably really amazing, especially if you're into big numbers, but no-one knows what it actually does.

Awk: North Korea. Stubbornly resists change, and its users appear to be unnaturally fond of it for reasons we can only speculate on.

If programming languages were countries, which country would each language represent?

Is Google the most powerful company in the world?

Answer by Waseem Senjer:

In terms of revenue?
Sinopec Group is the largest company in the world. Google is not in the top 60 list.

In terms of market capitalization?
Apple Inc. is the largest public company in the world. Google is the 4th after Exxon Mobil and Microsoft respectively.

In terms of profits and losses?
Fannie Mae is the largest company in the world. Google is not in the top 30 list.

In terms of number of employees?
Walmart is the largest company in the world (2,200,000 employees), Google has 55,030 employees.

In terms of largest information technology companies in revenue?
Samsung Electronics is the largest information technology company in the world. Google is the 10th after Apple Inc., Foxconn, HP, IBM, Microsoft, Amazon.com, Sony and Panasonic respectively.

References :

Is Google the most powerful company in the world?